Postgres Show Tables: How to Create a Table in PostgreSQL

October 9th, 2023
Postgres Show Tables: How to Create a Table in PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is widely used in a myriad of domains such as in supporting web applications, microservices, geospatial, and data analytics applications. Its robustness, scalability, enhanced security, and advanced features make it a popular choice among developers and enterprises. In this tutorial, you will learn how to create and show a table in PostgreSQL.

What is PostgreSQL?

Commonly abbreviated as "Postgres", PostgreSQL is a popular open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) known for its high performance, extensibility, and support for a myriad of advanced features including asynchronous replication, table inheritance, complex SQL queries, and many more.

Prerequisites

To follow along in this tutorial, ensure you have the following set of requirements:

  • PostgreSQL server installed on your Linux instance. Check out our comprehensive guide on how to install PostgreSQL on Ubuntu.
  • SSH access to the server with a sudo user configured.

Run your PostgreSQL deployments in a high-performing and cost-effective open cloud infrastructure. Cherry Servers' bare metal cloud and virtual servers offer automatic scaling, pay-as-you-go pricing, and free 24/7 technical support.

How to show tables in Postgres: Various ways

The below steps will demonstrate how to create a database. We will also focus on how to create a table in Postgres, insert records, and make queries to retrieve information from a table.

1. Create a database in the PostgreSQL server

With the PostgreSQL server already installed, the first thing is to create a database.

PostgreSQL provides some default databases out of the box. To list them, run the command:

\l

list-default-tables-in-postgresql

To create a database, use the syntax:

CREATE DATABASE database_name;

In this case, we will create a database called my_testdb.

CREATE DATABASE my_testdb;

create-database-in-postgresql

To verify that the database was created, once again, run the command:

\l

From the output below, you can see that our database has already been created.

list-of-all-databases-in-postgresql

2. Postgres: Show tables in a database

The next step is to create a table inside the database. To do this, connect to the database using the \c command as shown.

\c my_testdb

connect-to-a-database-in-postgresql

Next, we are going to create a table. The syntax for creating a table takes the following format:

CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name (
   column_name1 datatype(length) column_contraint,
   column_name2 datatype(length) column_contraint,
   column_name3 datatype(length) column_contraint,
  
);

Let’s dissect the syntax above:

  • The IF NOT EXISTS directive checks to see if there’s a table with the same name as the one being created. If one already exists, PostgreSQL will issue a warning and not allow you to proceed with creating the table.
  • Column names are specified alongside specific data types for the values that they will hold. This is followed by the maximum character number of the values and column constraints.
  • The column_constraint operator specifies the rules for storing data. For example, a column with a NOT NULL constraint implies that a column does not accept a null or empty value. This means you cannot insert or update a new record without specifying a value for that field.

For demonstration purposes, we are going to create a table called employee_details with six columns containing employee details.

CREATE TABLE employee_details (
	user_id serial PRIMARY KEY,
	first_name VARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
	last_name VARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
	email VARCHAR (255) UNIQUE NOT NULL,
	department VARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
           birth_date DATE   
);

create-table-in-postgresql

Upon pressing ENTER, you will get the output CREATE TABLE acknowledging that the table has successfully been created.

To show or display the table, run the command:

\dt

list-created-table-in-postgresql

In addition, you can use the \d table_name syntax to view the table structure or show tables in schema.

\d employee_details

describe-table-in-postgresql

3. PostgreSQL: Create a table using the ‘LIKE’ option

PostgreSQL allows you to create an empty table based on the schema of another table using the LIKE clause. Expectedly, the new table inherits the column attributes and indexes of the original table.

Creating a new table using the LIKE clause takes the following syntax:

CREATE TABLE new_table_name (LIKE old_table_name INCLUDING ALL);

For example, to create a new table called customer_details based on the employee_details table, we will run the following command:

CREATE TABLE customer_details (LIKE employee_details INCLUDING ALL);

To verify that the table was created, once again, run the following command:

\dt

create-table-using-like-in-postgresql

4. PostgreSQL: create a temporary table

You can also create temporary tables as well. A temporary table in PostgreSQL, as the name infers, is a table that is short-lived and does not outlast a database session. Once the session ends, the table is automatically dropped and ceases to exist.

To create a temporary table, invoke the TEMPORARY TABLE clause as illustrated below.

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE temp_table_name(
   column_list
);

Let’s create a temporary table called myTemporaryTable with three columns as shown.

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE IF NOT EXISTS myTemporaryTable(
    id serial PRIMARY KEY,
    first_name VARCHAR(50),	
    last_name VARCHAR(50)

);

create-temporary-table-in-postgresql

As previously mentioned, when you exit the database or close the session, the temporary table ceases to exist, and all the stored data disappears with it.

Discover how MKC Limited leveraged Cherry Servers' secure cloud infrastructure to enhance data security, reduce cost, and increase system efficiency.

5. Insert data and view a table

In this step, we will add a record to the employees_details table as follows and later query the table.

INSERT INTO employee_details VALUES ( 1001, 'Alice', 'Smith', 'alicesmith@outlook.com', 'Developer', '1988-05-10');

insert-values-in-a-table-in-postgresql

Run the following select command to list all the records/fields of the table that you have just saved.

SELECT * FROM employee_details;

display-table-details-in-postgresql

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we explored how to show tables in PostgreSQL. We went through various ways of creating a table in PostgreSQL and how to list or show records and the information schema of a table. Check out PostgreSQL’s official documentation for more information.

If you're a software developer who needs complete control of your cloud environment, look no further. With Cherry Servers, you’ll get high-quality dedicated bare metal, virtual servers, spot servers, and anonymous cloud hosting with an SLA uptime guarantee of 99.97% and free 24/7 technical support.

Winnie is a seasoned Linux Systems administrator, currently specializing in writing technical Linux tutorials. With over seven years of experience in deploying and working with major Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Debian, RHEL, OpenSUSE, and ArchLinux, she has written detailed and well-written "How to" Linux guides and tutorials. Winnie holds a Bachelor's Degree in Computer Science from Masinde Muliro University, Kenya and resides in Nairobi, Kenya. She is an expert in authoring Linux and DevOps topics involving Docker, Ansible, and Kubernetes. She currently works as a freelance technical writer and consultant. In her previous roles, she worked in the capacity of an IT support specialist and Linux administrator. Her key roles included offering level 1 and 2 support to both in-house and remote staff and managing and monitoring Linux servers.

Cloud VPS - Cheaper Each Month

Start with $9.99 and pay $0.5 less until your price reaches $6 / month.

We use cookies to ensure seamless user experience for our website. Required cookies - technical, functional and analytical - are set automatically. Please accept the use of targeted cookies to ensure the best marketing experience for your user journey. You may revoke your consent at any time through our Cookie Policy.
build: 372cf894.659